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October 2, 2014 Posted by | Bible, Bible Study, Biblical Interpretation, Christian, Christianity, God, Jesus, New Testament, Religon, Theology | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment




A Christian soldier is in a spiritual battle who needs the armor of God for protection against the enemy Satan. The battle is not a flesh and blood battle. It is a battle that is spiritual in nature and is against the forces of evil. The Christian solider is protected by the divine armor of God and will ultimately win the battle.




Historical-Cultural Context


City of Ephesus

Ephesus is a central hub in the Roman province of Asia. “The city of Ephesus lay at the mouth of the Cayster, between the Koressor Range and the sea, on the western coast of Asia Minor. Like all the river valleys around the great blunt end of the Asian continent’s westward protrusion, that of the Cayster was highway into the interior, the terminal of a trade route that linked with other roads converging and branching out toward the separated civilizations.”[1] The Ephesian church is started on Paul’s return trip to Antioch on his second missionary journey. In Acts 18:18-21 Paul came to Ephesus with Priscilla and Aquila. Paul is only in Ephesus for a very brief time but would return if God so willed. Paul left Ephesus and left Priscilla and Aquila there as he set sail for Caesarea.


Culture of Ephesus

In Acts 18:24-28 the evangelist Apollos who is competent in the Word of God and who taught about the things of Jesus. Priscilla and Aquila took Apollos and taught him more accurately what he should be teaching. After speaking with Priscilla and Aquila Apollos is better able to refute the Jews in public, showing by the Scriptures that Christ is indeed the Jesus they had been waiting for.

Paul did again return to Ephesus. In Acts 19:8-10 Paul reasoned in the synagogue for three months about the kingdom of God. The Jews did not believe and spoke badly about the Christians. He also taught in the hall of Tyrannus for two years so that all the residents of Asia heard the word of God. While Paul is in Ephesus he cast out demons and healed the sick. In Acts 19:23-41 there is a riot over the silversmiths who make idols for the Greek god Artemis. “Artemis was a goddess universally worshiped throughout the Greek world, but may have had pre-Hellenic origin, as for example at Ephesus, in which city her cult was undoubtedly grafted on to that of an Asiatic fertility goddess.”[2] Demetrius one of the silversmith’s income is being depreciated due to Paul stating that the Greek god Artemis is no god at all. Demetrius and the other silversmiths lively hood is being effected by Paul teaching at the hall of Tyrannus as well. The gospel of Jesus Christ is taking hold in the city of Ephesus and the surrounding areas. Because of Demetrius comments a riot is started in Ephesus that had to be stopped by the town clerk.



The author of the book of Ephesians is Paul. The letter is written between 60 and 62 AD. The letter is most likely not just for Ephesus but also for the other churches around Ephesus. The other churches Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, and Ephesus. Ephesians is a letter written from prison (Ephesians 3:1; 4:1; 6:20).[3] The letter is most likely meant to be circulated because of the impersonal tone of the letter. The statements that are made in Ephesians 1:15 “…I have heard of your faith in the Lord Jesus and your love toward all the saints” and in Ephesians 3:2 and 4:21 “…you have heard…” are indications for the impersonal tone and to show that the letter of Ephesians is meant for more than just Ephesus. Unlike what is found in Acts 20:17ff as an indication that he had known the Ephesian church very well because of the time that he spent there and worshiped with the Ephesians. The impersonal points found in Ephesians are opposite to what Luke wrote in Acts.

It is debated that Paul was imprisoned in three possible prisons of Rome, Ephesus, or Caesarea. Acts, Philippians, and Colossians all give support for the imprisonment in Rome. Acts gives an account of Paul being under house arrest for two years and was free to share the gospel during his imprisonment. (Acts 28:16-17; 23; 31). Philippians does mention the palace guard and the emperor’s household which would favor an imprisonment in Rome as well (Philippians 1:13; 4:22). Both Colossians and Acts show that Luke was with Paul during his imprisonment in Rome (Colossians 4:14; Acts 28:14, 16).[4]

Acts does not mention any imprisonment in Ephesus but in 2 Corinthians 6:5 and 11:23 Paul mentions that he is imprisoned on multiple occasions. Paul does not give any information in any of his letters where all of his imprisonments could have been. It is possible that he was imprisoned in Ephesus because he did encounter some fierce opposition there. In Paul’s letter to the Corinthians Paul mentions that he was in some trouble in Asia. Romans 16:3-4 mentions that Priscilla and Aquila did come to his aide and may very well have saved his life. Priscilla and Aquila are in Ephesus at the same time that Paul was there. Ephesus is a city that was the center of Asia and from there Paul’s letters could have been distributed throughout the region. However, the mere mention of all the above information does not necessary mean that Paul wrote the letter of Ephesians from an Ephesus prison. The one fact that makes this difficult as a possibility is the fact that there is no mention in Acts of Paul being imprisoned in Ephesus.[5]

The other possible prison is in Caesarea. It is not a secret that Paul was imprisoned in Caesarea. In Acts 24 Paul appeared before Marcus Antonius Felix, the Roman procurator of Judea and Felix imprisoned Paul for two years in Herod’s palace. While Paul is imprisoned there he was under house arrest just like he was in Rome. Caesarea as the possible imprisonment for Paul in the writing of Ephesians is centered on Paul’s letter to Philemon. The letter is centered on Philemon’s runaway slave Onesimus. It is easier for Onesimus to have escaped to Caesarea from Colossae than from Colossae to Rome. In Philemon 22 Paul is asking Philemon to prepare a guest room for him. This implies that Paul is closer to Colossae than to Caesarea. The one issue with Paul’s imprisonment in Caesarea is that Paul would only get out of the Cesarean prison if he appealed to Caesar.[6]

All of the information that points to Rome as the likely place for imprisonment comes from Colossians and Philippians rather than Ephesians. Ephesians itself does not show any information to exclude Rome as the likely place for imprisonment. “The arguments in favor of either Caesarea or Ephesus as the place from which Paul wrote the imprisonment letters are insufficiently conclusive to supplant the traditional view, which sees Rome as the location.”[7]


Literary Context


Genre of Ephesians

Ephesians is written as a general letter to Christians in Asia Minor. “The content shows clear signs that the writer does have a pastoral concern for a particular group of recipients, certain churches in western Asia Minor, and has shaped his material to meet their needs.”[8] Ephesians is in the form of an ancient letter. The form of the ancient letter of Ephesians is verified by the finding of thousands of ancient letters. “The form consists of six parts: (1) name of the writer, (2) name of the recipients, (3) greeting, (4) prayer wish or thanksgiving, (5) body, and (6) final greeting and farewell.”[9]


Structure of Ephesians

The letter of Ephesians is broken into to two parts. Part one is chapters 1-3 and it centers on the doctrines of the Christian faith. Part two is chapters 4-6 and it centers on living out or practicing the Christian faith. The letter opens up with Paul’s salutation. Paul identifies himself as the writer and an apostle and that he is writing to the saints in Ephesus (vs. 1). After the salutation Paul greets the saints of Ephesus (vs. 2).

In Ephesians 1:3 through 3:13 Paul writes in his letter about the purpose of the Church. Paul starts this section of the letter about the predestination of the believer in Christ (vs. 1:3-6). Next Paul moves on to the redemption that the believer has in Christ (vs. 1:7-10). The believer gets an inheritance in Christ (vs. 1:11-14). In Paul’s prayer (vs. 1:25-23) he gives thanks for the Ephesians and thanks for the resources that the believer has in Christ. Ephesians 2:1-3 explains what the sinful nature of a non-believer is like. Christ through the free gift of grace that comes from faith in Christ to save the sinner and bring the sinner into a relationship with himself (vs. 2:4-10). As Christians there is to be unity with all believers whether Jew or Greek (vs. 2:11-22). Ephesians 3:1-13 is about the mystery that is given to Paul and all of the disciples. The mystery that is given is the gospel of Jesus Christ. Paul specifically is given the gospel through revelation to go and tell the Gentiles about the grace of Jesus Christ.

Paul closes chapter three with a prayer of spiritual strength for the believer in Christ (vs. 3:14-19) and a doxology (3:20-21). Paul opens up with the believer’s responsibility in the body of Christ Jesus the church (vs. 4:1-6). The reason for the free gift of grace that is given by Christ (4:7-10). The purpose of spiritual gifts that are given by Christ (4:11-16). God’s pattern of how the believer is to live for Christ. The old life is explained and how the new life is now taken over. The believer is now alive in the new life (4:17-32).

The standard for faithfulness in Christ is a believer who walks in love (5:1-7). The believer will also walk and live in the light and not in darkness (5:8-14). The believer walks in the wisdom of Christ (vs. 5:15-18a). The believer that walks in Christ will have a heart that overflows with the worship of their savior Christ Jesus (vs. 5:18b-21). As a believer there is a right way to live between husbands and wives (vs. 5:22-33), between parents and children (6:1-4), and between masters and slaves (vs. 6:5-9). Paul ends his letter with the fact that a believer lives on a spiritual battlefield. As a soldier in God’s army he provides the necessary provisions to survive the spiritual battle (vs. 6:10-17). Paul closes the letter with a prayer and benediction for the saints. (6:18-24).


Exegetical Analysis of Ephesians 6:10-20


Exegesis of Ephesians 6:10-13


10 Finally, be strong in the Lord and in the strength of his might. 11 Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil. 12 For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this present darkness, against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places. 13 Therefore take up the whole armor of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand firm. (ESV)


Key Words and Word Studies

The key word for Ephesians 6:10-13 is “armor” (panoplian., panoply). The word “armor” only appears three times in the New Testament. It appears in Ephesians 6:11, 13 and Luke 11:22. The word literal means a “full armor of a heavy-armed soldier. The non-literal meaning is the indication of the armor as part of the life of the solider and specifically mentions separate parts of his equipment. The meaning can also be metaphoric.”[10] In the senses of the word in Ephesians the word is taken to be metaphoric as the divine armor of God.


Key Observations and Scholarly Notes

The purpose for the armor of God is so that the believer can “stand against the schemes of the devil” (vs. 11). The schemes of the devil have to be resisted. Ephesians 4:14 talks about the human craftiness and trickery schemes that the devil uses to lead people astray. In Ephesians 4:25-27 the devil exploits and uses anger and truth between believers to bring about strife. In order to fight the schemes of the devil the strength of man will not work. The believer will need the whole spiritual armor of God to fight off the schemes of the devil.[11]

Ladd in his book A Theology of the New Testament gives a great scriptural definition of the devil;


The archenemy of God, however, is an evil spirit which is sometimes called the devil (Eph. 4:27; 6:11; 1 Tim. 3:7), but usually Satan. Satan is the ruler of the authority of the air (Eph. 2:2), the god of this age (2 Cor. 4:4), whose objective is to blind the minds of men and women that they should mot apprehend the saving power off the gospel (1 Thess. 3:5), to hinder God’s servants in their ministry (1 Thess. 2:18), who raises up false apostles to pervert the truth of the gospel (2 Cor. 11:14), who is ever seeking to overwhelm God’s people (Eph.6:11, 12, 16), and who is even able to bring his attacks in the form of bodily afflictions to God’s choicest servants (2 Cor. 12:7). Satan’s main objective is to frustrate the redemptive purposes of God, and at the end of the age the satanic power will become incarnate in a man of lawlessness who will endeavor by one last final effort to overthrow the work of God and to turn people to the worship of evil (2 Thess. 2:4-10). However, Satan’s doom is sure; God will crush him under the feet of the saints (Rom. 16:20).[12]


The battle is spiritual and the believer will “…wrestle against the rulers, against the authorities, against the cosmic powers over this present darkness, and against the spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places” (v. 12; ESV). It is a description for the nature of the enemy and gives the whole reason why the believer needs the armor of God. Not only does it give a reason for the armor of God but all of human existence is under the powers that work evil;[13]


The evil powers, who are opposing believers and who are listed in Ephesians 6:12, appear to be subject to the devil (6:11), to the ruler of the realm of the air (2:2). They include the ‘principalities’ and ‘authorities’ already mentioned in 1:21 as those over whom Christ rules not only in this age but also in the age to come. Because this age continues and believers live in it as well as enjoying the benefits of the age to come, these powers are still able to threaten and menace them.[14]


The “spiritual forces of evil in the heavenly places” is to denote the location of the evil spirits. In the list of evil forces Paul is showing the variety and comprehensiveness of the power of the enemy, the devil. “Although the opposing forces are formidable, the fact that they are in the heavenly realms need no longer pose a threat to believers, because they are not fighting to break through the hold of such powers and penetrate to the heavenly realm themselves, but are to see themselves as fighting from a position of victory, having already been seated with Christ in the heavenly realms.”[15]

The believer is at war and will continue to be at war until Christ comes back again. Because the believer is at war then wearing “the armor of God to be able to withstand the day of evil” is not an option. The armor of God is God’s provision to fight in the spiritual battle. The believer is indwelt by the Holy Spirit and the believer has God’s Word. The believer must exercise obedience to the Holy Spirit through God’s Word in order to combat every evil day. The day the believer is disobedient is the day the armor of God is not on the believer. Once there is no armor of God the schemes of the devil will control the believer.


Exegesis of Ephesians 6:14-17


14 Stand therefore, having fastened on the belt of truth, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, 15 and, as shoes for your feet, having put on the readiness given by the gospel of peace. 16 In all circumstances take up the shield of faith, with which you can extinguish all the flaming darts of the evil one; 17 and take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God, (ESV)


Key Words and Word Studies

The key words that are in Ephesians 6:14-17 include truth, righteousness, peace, faith, and salvation. The word “truth” (““vvalhqeia, aletheia) can mean truthfulness, dependability, uprightness in thought and deed. Another way to define truth is simple to tell the truth. Truth in Christianity can simply mean the absolute truth. Truth can be strongly practical, which expresses itself in virtues like righteousness and holiness. In John 1:7 Christ calls himself “truth” and so truth can be divine as well.[16] In the context of Ephesians 6:14 truth is the absolute truth from God. The truth from God is used as the belt of the solider or literally to gird one’s loins. Without God’s truth then everything else will fail. 

“Righteousness” (dikaiosuns dikaiosune) can be defined as being upright or to have justice as a characteristic of a judge (Hebrews 11:32-34). It can also mean as a characteristic required of man by God. The characteristic is too great for man to fulfill but Christ came and fulfilled it for the believer (Matthew 3:15). Righteousness can also be defined as a motive on how a person conducts their life. In the context of Ephesians 6:14 the believer carries the righteousness of God the judge on the breastplate.[17]

“Peace” (eirhnhj eirenes) is literally the opposite of war. “Peace” can also be taken away and plunge an issue into war. “Peace” can bring about harmony that can act as a bond that holds something together (Ephesians 4:3).[18] The believer receives peace from God when a person becomes a Christian. The peace of God that is receive is beyond all understanding. In Ephesians 6:15 the peace of God comes from hearing the gospel of Jesus Christ.

“Faith” (pistewj pisteos) literally means that which causes trust. It can also mean as a pledge or proof. God has appointed Jesus to be the judge of the world and God has furnished proof by raising Jesus from the dead. “Faith” can mean to have belief in something. A person who trusts and is confident in God has ‘faith.” “Faith” can be true piety, genuine religion, or literally means being a Christian.[19] Faith in the context of Ephesians 6:16 means to have faith in God to protect the believer from the devils schemes.

Salvation (swthriou soteriou) means to save, to deliver, to preserve, or to bring salvation. As an adjective “salvation” means that the grace of God has appeared and bringing salvation to all men. Salvation as a means for deliverance, means that God is the mediator of his free gift of salvation.[20] Salvation in Ephesians 6:17 is about what the grace of God has accomplished for the Christian solider.


Key Observations and Scholarly Notes

Paul exhorts the believer “to stand clothed in the armor of God whose pieces are described by metaphors drawn from Isaiah.”[21] The key text for Ephesians 6:10-20 comes from Isaiah 59. In Isaiah 59 Israel’s state of affairs before God is described: “sin has made a gulf between the people and God (v. 2), the people do not know the way of peace (v. 8), justice is apart from them, and righteousness has not come upon them (v. 9), salvation is far removed (v. 11), and truth has been taken away (v. 15). The response of God is to arm himself as a warrior to bring wrath upon his enemies and impiety away from Zion (59:16-20).”[22] The same divine armor is now imputed upon the Christian soldier in Ephesians 6:10-20.

The “belt of truth” comes from Isaiah 11:5. The “breastplate of righteousness” and the “helmet of salvation” come from Isaiah 59:17. The feet are covered with the “gospel of peace” which comes from Isaiah 52:7. “The sword of the Spirit, the word of God” comes from Isaiah 49:2.

Paul starts off verse 14 with “stand firm” and this is a soldier who is getting ready for a battle. The Christian solider is to “fasten the belt of truth around the waist.” The fastening of the belt signifies a preparation for vigorous activity such as a battle. “As believers buckle on this piece of the Messiah’s armor, they will be strengthened by God’s truth revealed in the gospel, as a consequence of which they will display the characteristics of the Anointed One in their attitudes, language, and behavior. In this way they resist the devil, giving him no opportunity to gain an advantage.”[23] Truth is a demonstration of an action by the believer. The believer is living out the gospel by the reliance on God’s resources in Christ.[24]

In most of Paul’s letters righteousness carries the meaning of justification. God through Jesus Christ is putting sinners right with him. Since righteousness is the breastplate, what could be more important than having a right relationship with God? The Christian is justified before God through faith in Jesus Christ and it is by grace that one is not condemned but accepted. A right relationship with God is a strong defense against the devil and his schemes.[25] Another aspect to the breastplate of righteousness is that the Christian solider must exercise wisdom, righteousness, and merciful justice to all who thirst for peace.[26]

The “gospel of peace” is part of the feet and the feet is the foundation of the Christian solider. Peace gives the Christian solider the readiness to go out and share the gospel when God has called the Christian to do so. Through the reconciliation with God the Christian solider is given peace. The peace gives the Christian solider a firm foothold to combat the schemes of the devil.[27] “The believer who stands in the Lord’s power need not fear any enemy, even Satan himself. When (Satan) comes to attack us, our feet are rooted firmly on the solid ground of the gospel of peace, through which God changed from our enemy to our defender.[28]

The Roman solider uses two different kinds of shields. One, shield is a round one that is small in size. The other shield is a large shield that covered the entire body. The primary purpose of the shield is to protect the solider in battle against the flaming arrows that would be fired at the solider. The Old Testament refers to the shield as an image of protection from God. In the context of Ephesians 6:16 the “shield of faith” is the acceptance of Christ’s power for protection of the whole body. Faith is the use of all of God’s power to protect the believer against anything that Satan can throw at the believer.[29]

“Salvation language is being used throughout Ephesians to summarize what God has already accomplished for believers: his making them alive with Christ, raising them up, and seating them in the heavenly places (2:5, 6) are comprehensively described as his having saved them by grace (vv. 5, 8).[30] The “helmet of salvation” is the power that is found in Christ. The power of salvation only gets stronger as the Christian matures in faith in Christ. The power of Christ through salvation can fight off any of the devil’s schemes that come the believer’s way.

The “sword” is the word of God” and as “the word of God (it) is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing to the division of soul and of spirit, of joints and of marrow, and discerning the thoughts and intentions of the heart” (Hebrews 4:12; ESV). The sword is the last piece of equipment for the Christian solider. The sword is the only piece of equipment that can be used for both offense and defense. The sword is a small sword used for attacks that are precise in nature. Paul is emphasizing the importance of knowing the truths of God’s word as an offense and defense to the devil’s schemes. Every time God’s Word is used to lead a person to salvation it gives witness to its power to cut a swath through Satan’s dominion of darkness and bring the light of life to a lost soul.”[31]


Exegesis of Ephesians 6:18-20


18 praying at all times in the Spirit, with all prayer and supplication. To that end keep alert with all perseverance, making supplication for all the saints, 19 and also for me, that words may be given to me in opening my mouth boldly to proclaim the mystery of the gospel, 20 for which I am an ambassador in chains, that I may declare it boldly, as I ought to speak. (ESV)


Key Words and Word Studies

The key words found in Ephesians 6:18-20 include prayer, supplication, and perseverance. “Prayer” (prosenchj, proseuches) is intercession to God on behalf of someone.[32] “Supplication” (dehsewj, deeseos) is to entreat God and is always exclusive in addressing God.[33] “Perseverance” (proskarterhsei, proskarteresei) is simply to have patience.[34] Prayer, supplication, and perseverance are all used in the form of prayer to God on behalf of the Christian solider. Prayer is the Christians soldier’s communication link to God and source of power.


Key Observations and Scholarly Notes

In order for the Christian solider to stand firm and take up the armor of God it will take a dependence on God. Prayer is a direct means for communication to God and a means to take up the armor of God. There is a theme throughout all of Paul’s Epistles to pray without ceasing. The context of Ephesians 6:10-20 brings about the spiritual battle that the Christian solider is in and the importance of unceasing prayer as a must in order to conquer the schemes of the evil one. Paul is “calling for prayer inspired, guided, and made effective through the Spirit. Those who are united in their access to the Father through the Spirit (2:18), who are built into God’s dwelling place in the Spirit (2:22), and who are being filed with the Spirit (5:18) can and should pray constantly in and through this Spirit.”[35] Paul ends the book of Ephesians on prayer. Prayer is a fitting end to a book that is devoted to doctrine and to teaching which govern the individual Christian and the life of the Church.[36]



The Christian solider needs to be in constant prayer. The Christian solider needs to be constantly reading and studying God’s word. The Christians solider needs the aid of fellow believers. The Christian solider needs the power of Jesus Christ. “Prayer is the key ingredient to being strong and alert. When we pray in the Spirit, the Spirit is interactive with us. As a result, we are empowered and instructed by the Spirit. We put on the armor of God by being in communication with God.”[37] And as we come to recognize the evil, and all of its manifestations in the world around us then the Christian solider will know the true importance of prayer.[38]



A Christian soldier is in a spiritual battle who needs the armor of God for protection against the enemy Satan. In a battle there are causalities. It is no different than being in God’s army. There will be causalities. The soldier will need the armor of God, prayer and petition, the Holy Spirit, and all of the power of Christ to withstand all of the schemes of the devil. Without the armor of God the Christian soldier will become a casualty.


[1] Merrill C Tenney, ed., The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible., vol. 2 D-G, 5 vols. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1975), 324.

[2] Merrill C Tenney, ed., The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible., vol. 1 A-C, 5 vols. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1975), 341.

[3] John MacArthur, The MacArthur New Testament Commentary Ephesians (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), xii.

[4] Frank E Gaebelein, ed., The Expositor’s Bible Commentary with The New International Version of the Holy Bible. Vol 11 Ephesians-Philemon (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), 13-14.

[5] Ibid., 14.

[6] Ibid., 15.

[7] Ibid., 14-15.

[8] Andrew T Lincoln, Word Biblical Commentary Ephesians, ed. David A. Hubbard, Glenn W. Barker, and Ralph P. Martin, vol. 42, 52 vols. (Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1990), xl.

[9] Gordon D. Fee and Douglas Stuart, How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth, 3rd Kindle Edition. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2003), 1011.

[10] William Arndt et al., A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 4th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957), 612.

[11] F. F. Bruce, The New International Commentary on the New Testament: The Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, and to the Ephesians, Kindle Edition. (Grand Rapids, Mich: W.B. Eerdmans, 1984).., 6255.

[12] George Eldon Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament, Rev. ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1993), 440.

[13] Lincoln, 443.

[14] Ibid., 444.

[15] Ibid., 445.

[16] Arndt, 35.

[17] Ibid., 195.

[18] Ibid., 226.

[19] Ibid., 668-669.

[20] Ibid., 809.

[21] Robert A Guelich, “Spiritual Warfare : Jesus, Paul and Peretti.,” Pneuma 13, no. 1 (1991): 49.

[22] Robert A. Wild, “The Warrior and the Prisoner: Some Reflections on Ephesians 6:10-20,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 46, no. 2 (April 1, 1984): 286-287.

[23] Peter T O’Brien, The Pillar New Testament Commentary: Ephesians, ed. D. A Carson, Kindle Edition. (Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1999), 473.

[24] Andrew T. Lincoln, “‘Stand, Therefore …’: Ephesians 6:10-20 As Peroratio,” Biblical Interpretaion 3, no. 1 (1995): 105.

[25] John R. W. Stott, The Bible Speaks Today: The Message of Ephesians, ed. John R. W. Stott (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1979), 278-279.

[26] Markus Barth, The Anchor Bible: Ephesians, ed. William F. Albright and David N. Freedman, 1st ed., 34-34A (New York, NY: Doubleday, 1974), 797.

[27] A. Skevington Wood, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Ephesians-Philemon, ed. Frank E Gaebelein, vol. 11 (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981), 88.

[28] MacArthur, 355.

[29] Lincoln, 449.

[30] O’Brien, 479.

[31] MacArthur, 371.

[32] Arndt, 720.

[33] Ibid., 171.

[34] Ibid., 723.

[35] Lincoln, 452

[36] David Martyn Lloyd-Jones, The Christian Soldier: An Exposition of Ephesians 6:10 to 20 (Edinburgh ; Carlisle, Pa: Banner of Truth Trust, 1977), 350.

[37] Klyne Snodgrass, The NIV Application Commentary: Ephesians (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996), 358.

[38] William F. Warren, Jr., “Engaging the Forces of Evil (Eph 6:10-20).,” Theological Educator, no. 54 (1996): 103.


 Arndt, William, F. Wilbur (Felix Wilbur) Gingrich, John R. Alsop, and Walter Bauer. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. 4th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1957.

 Barth, Markus. The Anchor Bible: Ephesians. Edited by William F. Albright and David N. Freedman. 1st ed. 34-34A. New York, NY: Doubleday, 1974.

 Bruce, F. F. The Epistles to the Colossians, to Philemon, and to the Ephesians. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans, 1984.

 Fee, Gordon D., and Douglas Stuart. How to Read the Bible for All Its Worth. 3rd Kindle Edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2003.

 Guelich, Robert A. “Spiritual Warfare : Jesus, Paul and Peretti.” Pneuma 13, no. 1 (1991): 33 – 64.

 Ladd, George Eldon. A Theology of the New Testament. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1993.

 Lloyd-Jones, David Martyn. The Christian Soldier: An Exposition of Ephesians 6:10 to 20. Edinburgh ; Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth Trust, 1977.

 Lincoln, Andrew T. Word Biblical Commentary Ephesians. Edited by David A. Hubbard, Glenn W. Barker, and Ralph P. Martin. Vol. 42. 52 vols. Waco, Tex.: Word Books, 1990.

 —. “‘Stand, Therefore …’: Ephesians 6:10-20 As Peroratio.” Biblical Interpretation 3, no. 1 (1995): 99–114.

 MacArthur, John. Ephesians. The MacArthur New Testament Commentary. Chicago: Moody Press, 1986.

 Snodgrass, Klyne. The NIV Application Commentary: Ephesians. Kindle Edition. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1996.

 Tenney, Merrill C, ed. The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. Vol. 1 A-C. 5 vols. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1975.

 —, ed. The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible. Vol. 2 D-G. 5 vols. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Pub. House, 1975.

 Warren, William F, Jr. “Engaging the Forces of Evil (Eph 6:10-20).” Theological Educator, no. 54 (1996): 95 – 103.

 Wild, Robert A. “The Warrior and the Prisoner: Some Reflections on Ephesians 6:10-20.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 46, no. 2 (April 1, 1984): 284–298.

 Wood, A. Skevington. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: Ephesians-Philemon. Edited by Frank E Gaebelein. Vol. 11. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981.

December 28, 2013 Posted by | Uncategorized | , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

What is Faith in God

Faith requires an object to which it clings and in which it trust. Theobject that concerns Christians is the grace of God in Christ Jesus. The definition of faith is contained in Hebrews 11:1 “Now faith in being sure of what we hope for and certain of what we do see.” Faith is taking God at His word and asking no questions. There are two sides to faith. One being the intellect, for it is an intellectual conviction that Jesus Christ is God. The second being the will, which involves the voluntary surrender of the will to Jesus Christ as Master of your life. Man is not born with faith in Jesus Christ. Man obtains faith from hearing the word of God as stated in Romans 10:17 “Consequently faith comes from hearing the message, and the message is heard through the word of Christ.” Faith therefore, is the work of God in the sense that it is He and He alone, who creates and sustains it in our hearts. Man must perform in his heart an act to receive faith from God. Faith is not a physical act, but something we believe in our heart and soul. It is impossible for man to believe if he does not know. This is mentioned in Romans 10:14 “How then can they call on the one they have not believe in? And how can they believe in the one of whom they have not heard? “ Thus, faith without knowledge is an impossibility but, knowledge of the Gospel is not faith. Knowledge is necessary, inasmuch as it is the means through which the Holy Ghost works on the heart to produce faith. Man will not or cannot put his trust in anything he does not regard as true and reliable. Man on his on free will does not have faith in God. The word “faith” always implies trust and confidence of the heart. To accept facts and statements as true is not faith. But if the facts and statments give meaning to us personally, if we feel sure that they will help and benefit us, and if we trust in them for such help, then we have faith. Faith, therefore, is an emotional attitude of the heart plus an act of the will. Romans 10:10 varifies this statement ” For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you confess and are saved.” Faith is the assurance and confidence of the heart in those invisible and spiritual things promised to us by God in His Word and Gospel. The results of faith are peace, joy, and happiness.

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March 24, 2008 Posted by | Christian | , , , , | Leave a comment


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